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Given to the soldiers of the Great Afghan Civil War ( 1928 – 1929 ). Amanullah Khan ( 1892 – 1960 ), emir of Afghanistan, had been modernizing the country when opponents staged a revolt in November 1928. By mid – January 1929, the Emir abdicated in favor of his brother. But another rival took Kabul, the Afghan capital and proclaimed himself Emir ( Habibullah Ghazi ). At Kandahar, Amanullah Khan put together an army marched on Kabul in the spring of 1929; he was defeated en route and fled from the country. Other claimants to the throne were also unsuccessful. General Muhammad Nadir Khan ( 1880-1933 ), an Afghan officer and Amanullah’s cousin, organized an army after returning from Europe and marched against Habibullah, defeating him and taking Kabul in October 1929. Habibullah was captured and executed, and his victorious foe took the throne, renaming himself Nadir Shah. With British assistance, he instituted reforms, restored order and placated the loyal followers of Amanullah. In 1932, he established a constitutional government.